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You are here IEEE1599  >  Reference Manual  >  Gregorian_symbol

Gregorian_symbol

<!ELEMENT gregorian_symbol (notehead+)>
<!ATTLIST gregorian_symbol
   id ID #IMPLIED
   neume (punctum | virga | punctum_inclinatum | quilisma | apostrofa |
               oriscus | podatus | pes | clivis | flexa | epiphonus |
               cephalicus | bistropha | bivirga | trigon | torculus |
               porrectus | scandicus | salicus | climacus | tristropha |
               trivirga | strophicus | pressus | custos) #REQUIRED
   inflexion (no | resupinus | flexus) "no"
   subpunctis (no | praepunctis | subpunctis | subbipunctis |
               subtripunctis | subquadripunctis | subquinquipunctis) "no"
   interpretative_mark (no | vertical_episema | horizontal_episema |
               liquescens) "no"
   mora (yes | no) "no"
   %spine_ref;>

Element gregorian_symbol is for the encoding of scores in Gregorian chant notation. The shape, inflexion and advanced properties of the symbols are contained in the attributes of this element. Some examples are provided here, but for a complete list of Gregorian neumes and their variants one has to refer to a manual. Neumes are single symbols, thus they correspond to single events in spine, but are not necessarily made of single notes, and in general, neumes can represent two, three or even more notes. This is single pitches can, and should, be represented by notehead sub-elements, to respect the modern transcription order, which actually corresponds to their order of performance.

Examples

In the following examples, the clef signature is supposed to be a C clef on the third line

Flat_neume

<gregorian_symbol neume="punctum" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" actual_accidental="flat" />
      <printed_accidentals>
         <flat />
      </printed_accidentals>
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
Punctum_mora
<gregorian_symbol neume="punctum" mora="yes" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="F" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
custos
<gregorian_symbol neume="custos" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
Liquescent
<gregorian_symbol neume="clivis"                interpretative_mark="liquescens"
               event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="D" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="C" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
Climacus
<gregorian_symbol neume="climacus" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="C" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="A" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
Scandicus
<gregorian_symbol neume="scandicus" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="A" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="C" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
Torculus
<gregorian_symbol neume="torculus" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="D" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="E" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="D" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
clef
<gregorian_symbol neume="porrectus" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="A" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="G" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>
Scandicus_subbipunctus
<gregorian_symbol neume="porrectus" neume="scandicus"
               subpunctis="subbipunctis" event_ref="ev_01">
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="C" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="D" octave="5" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="B" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
   <notehead>
      <pitch step="A" octave="4" />
   </notehead>
</gregorian_symbol>


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